Quick description

Hi, everyone! Yeah, bit late again, so sorry. This week we have a bit of history, talking about how Petrobrás was founded and has made Brazil 8th in oil production in the world, and how it ends up part of daily politics in Brazil, including the Car Wash operation.

As always, we'd like to thank Uoster Zielisnki for the graphic design and the essential workers out there keeping us safe.


Show notes

1938: Decree-Law 395 29 April established the National Petroleum Council 

1939: the first well of oil was found in the countryside of Bahia

1940s and 1950s: establishement of basic industries under the Getúlio Vargas dictatorship and democratic periods

1947: O petróleo é nosso! (The oil is ours!) Petrobras 50 anos | CPDOC
Flyer by the Brazilian Communist Party (PCB) - Fundação Getúlio Vargas

1953: Creation of Petrobrás and the monopoly of all oil-related activities with Law 2004, 3 October, by Getúlio Vargas

1997: Law 9478, 6 August, by Fernando Henrique Cardoso, ends Petrobrás's monopoly, allowing other companies to act in Brazil. The majority shareholder in Petrobrás is still the Brazilian state.
Campaign against the end of the monopoly, by the union of oil workers. 1990. Image by João R. Ripper, in Fundação Getúlio Vargas.
2006: Pre-salt is found during Lula's government. In 2010, Law 12351 is passed, stating that 50% of profits from the pre-salt had to go into social development and the other 50% to education. Bill 10985/2018 sough to change that arrangement, but that section was ultimately vetoed by Bolsonaro, becoming Law 14052/2020. The reason given was that the Senate has no budgetary prerogative to make that and other changes. O pré-sal é nosso', dizem os estudantes - Rede Brasil Atual
Image by Antônio Cruz/ABr, in Rede Brasil Atual. 2010.

Sources for the episode (in addition to the links above):

List of Brazilian companies owned by the state

Monteiro Lobato and his weird views on Brazil and oil extraction

Industrialização, estado e sociedade no Brasil (1930-1945), Forjaz, 1984

FGV's thematic dictionary - Petrobrás

Petrobrás grows during Lula and Dilma

From unsustained to sustained growth? Forecasting Brazilian potential growth for the period 2013-2020, with emphasis on the effect of the oil sector, Roos and Lourenço, 2016

Oil production grows in 2020